An article for those involved in sport at grassroots level. 

Head injuries (particularly concussion) continue to be a major talking point at all levels of medical care in sport.


But how can we expect head injuries to be taken seriously or fully understood in professional sport, when most people at grassroots don't know the basic considerations?


It seems coaches, parents, players, managers (and some first aiders!) think head injuries are an area that only medical professionals need to worry about.


But a small amount of basic knowledge and understanding can help us all deal with head injuries.


Take a look at the recent picture below of James Milner clashing heads during a pre-season game v Napoli:



From a first aid perspective, think about which of the following you would be able to assess and manage:


1. Concussion or a serious head injury


Would you be able to assess for signs of concussion?


Could you assess for signs of other types of head injury like a fractured skull or compression?


Would you know when to remove the player and when to let them carry on?


2. Unconscious casualty



If the casualty collapsed and became unconscious, how would you manage them?


Should you move the casualty?


When would you consider calling 999?


3. Open wound



If the player has an open wound, could you control the bleeding?


Should the player carry on?


Are you prepared for the potential risk of infection to both you and the player?


If player welfare really is the number one priority, coaches, players, officials, parents and players should all be able to answer the above questions as a minimum.

Just this week, Newport County manager Mike Flynn questioned the reasoning behind an enforced extended period of rest for Antoine Semenyo following a concussion against Oxford United. As Semenyo is under 19, the F.A's rules dictate an additional 6 days' recovery. Rather than publicly suggest this is unnecessary and potentially undermine the ruling, it would be more helpful for Flynn to find out why this is the case.


Increased awareness and understanding of head injuries at grassroots football would only serve to help medical professionals and player welfare at all levels.


Click here for further information about Lubas Medical First Aid for Sport & Exercise (FASE) courses,

What is CPR? (FAQS)

Posted by chris



What is CPR?

CPR (Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation) is an emergency life saving procedure that is carried out when somebody is in cardiac or respiratory arrest. We combine rescue breaths and chest compressions to try and circulate oxygen around a casualty’s body to the major organs in preparation for defibrillation.

What is a cardiac arrest?

Cardiac – relating to the heart. Arrest – To stop.

Cardiac arrest is when the heart stops pumping blood (and therefor oxygen) around the body. This is often caused by an electrical or mechanical malfunction of the heart, an underlying heart condition, or following a medical emergency. During cardiac arrest, the vital organs are starved of oxygen and the casualty becomes unconscious and stops breathing.

Is a heart attack the same as cardiac arrest?

No. A heart attack is caused by a blockage in the arteries supplying blood and oxygen to the heart tissue. As the heart is a muscle, it requires oxygen to function correctly. If untreated, this can develop into a cardiac arrest as outlined above. Therefore, a heart attack could be the cause of a cardiac arrest

How effective is CPR at restarting the heart?

A common misconception is that CPR is designed to “re-start” the casualty’s heart. CPR is effective in circulating blood and oxygen to the vital organs until a defibrillator becomes available to shock the casualty (and theoretically restart the heart). Effective CPR within the first few minutes of cardiac arrest can more than double the chances of survival.

What is a ‘defibrillator’?

A defibrillator (or AED, which stands for Automated External Defibrillator) is a device that can deliver an electric shock to the heart of a casualty in cardiac arrest. The shock provides enough electricity to help “re-start” the heart under the right circumstances.

AED’s assess the casualties heart rhythm and “decide” if a shock is required. This makes them very safe and simple pieces of equipment for bystanders to use.


Can I use a defibrillator?

The simple answer is yes. Though it is highly preferred and recommended you have training before using a defibrillator, it isn’t a requirement. A defibrillator is a vital piece of life saving equipment that can be used by any bystander during cardiac arrest.

Defibrillators are becoming much more common in public places like supermarkets, train stations, public gyms, airports etc. These are referred to as PAD’s (Public Access Defibrillators). They are very effective at guiding the operator through the process of potentially shocking a casualty and will not allow you to shock someone who doesn’t need it.

There is no reason to be afraid to use a defibrillator if you suspect a casualty is in cardiac arrest.

Is CPR effective without mouth to mouth or rescue breaths?

Chest compressions combined with rescue breaths is still the recommended and most effective form of CPR.

However, if you have reason not to give mouth to mouth/rescue breaths e.g. the casualty has blood or vomit around their mouth, or you don’t know the casualty and are unsure as to the risks of infection, “hands-only” CPR is an acceptable alternative.

In casualty’s that have suffered cardiac arrest through a lack of oxygen (caused by drowning, asthma, anaphylaxis or in most children), “hands only” CPR is much less effective.

Chest compression's without rescue breaths are always still more effective than doing nothing at all!

How do I know if someone is in cardiac arrest?

Without an appropriate supply of blood & oxygen, the brain cannot function and shuts down. During cardiac arrest, the lack of oxygen to the brain will cause the casualty to become unresponsive or unconscious.

The casualty may make noisy, infrequent gasps or may show no signs of breathing. This is not normal breathing and would indicate the casualty is in cardiac arrest.

If the casualty is unconscious and has stopped breathing normally, they are in cardiac arrest. Call 999 and start CPR!

Will the casualty survive a cardiac arrest?

In the UK, fewer than 10% of people that suffer cardiac arrest, with an attempt of CPR outside of hospital, survive.

Where a cardiac arrest is recognised immediately, CPR is performed, and a defibrillator is used prior to medical professionals (Paramedics) arriving, survival rates of higher than 50% have been reported. This really highlights the importance of the recognition of signs and symptoms and importance of immediate CPR and defibrillation.

Can you be sued for doing CPR?

Nobody in the UK has ever been sued for attempting CPR. In 2015, the government introduced the ‘Social Action, Responsibility and Heroism (SARAH)’ act to protect those performing “acts of heroism”.

The link to this law is as follows:

Is adult CPR different from child CPR?

The ratio of compressions to rescue breaths in children is the same as the adult sequence, however, there are some modifications that make it more appropriate for children as follows:

·         Begin with 5 rescue breaths before the first 30 compressions.

·         Use one hand for compressions (or 2 if you find it difficult to compress with one hand) as children are smaller than adults.

·         Use two fingers to compress the chest of a baby (under the age of 1).

It is important to know that these modifications are not essential, and it is far more important that some form of CPR is given rather than nothing at all. There is a general fear that the “wrong” form of CPR given in children could make the situation worse. This is not the case and any attempts at CPR will have more benefit that doing nothing.

How effective is CPR at restarting the heart?

A common misconception is that CPR is designed to “re-start” the casualty’s heart. CPR is effective in circulating blood and oxygen to the vital organs until a defibrillator becomes available to shock the casualty (and theoretically restart the heart). Effective CPR within the first few minutes of cardiac arrest can more than double the chances of survival.


            Allergies - First Aid advice



Allergies occur when the body perceives a seemingly harmless substance as a threat and the immune system produces an inappropriate response.


Allergy is the most common chronic disease in Europe. Up to 20% of patients with allergies struggle daily with the fear of a possible asthma attack, anaphylactic shock, or even death from an allergic reaction.


In the 20 years to 2012 there was a 615% increase in the rate of hospital admissions for anaphylaxis in the UK.


Allergy U.K have reported that an estimated 21 million people in the U.K suffer with some form of allergy.  This figure includes 50% of all children.  These statistics show that allergies are an increasingly prevalent problem.   The severity of the allergy can differ from person to person, ranging from mild and simply inconvenient to a life-threatening anaphylaxis.

A person can develop an allergy to any substance and can also become allergic to something they have previously been able to tolerate. 


A specific protein contained in the substance will cause the allergic reaction.  Common substances people are allergic to include food such as nuts or shellfish, pollen, pet hair, chemicals such as hair dye, medications (such as penicillin and NSAIDS) and insects such as bees and wasps.

Symptoms can be varied and include:

·         Sneezing

·         Coughing

·         wheezing

·         Itching of skin and/or eyes nose

·         Rashes

·         Vomiting and diarrhoea


Allergic reactions are usually managed with avoidance of the substance that causes the allergy, but this is not always possible.

Medication can be used to treat mild-moderate allergic reactions and anti-histamines are widely available without prescription. Symptoms of the allergy can also be treated with medications such as steroid creams for rashes, nasal sprays for nasal irritation and emollients for eczema.

A severe allergic reaction can be life threatening and is known as Anaphylaxis.

Symptoms can include some or all of the below:

·         Swelling of the tongue, throat, difficulty in swallowing

·         Difficulty in breathing usually resulting in a noise known as stridor

·         Severe wheeze when breathing

·         Dizziness/collapse

·         Vomiting

·         Increase in heart rate

·         Rash (urticaria, hives)


If you suspect somebody is experiencing an anaphylactic reaction an ambulance needs to be called immediately. Treatment for anaphylaxis is an intra-muscular injection of adrenaline.  People who know they are at risk of an anaphylactic reaction will usually carry an auto injector so as to be able to treat themselves quickly in the event of a reaction.

Adrenaline is life saving and must be used promptly in anaphylaxis. Delaying the giving of adrenaline can result in deterioration and death. This is why using an adrenaline device is the first line treatment for anaphylaxis.

Here at Lubas medical we offer anaphylaxis training as part of our first aid courses. We can also provide a bespoke course to teach how to recognise an anaphylactic reaction and how to administer the recommended treatment.

For more information regarding allergies, and how to manage them visit:

You’ll find lots of useful information and a different article each day of allergy week highlighting a relevant topic.








Looking to develop your skills? Or looking for a career in pre-hospital care?

The Lubas FREC level 3 course will provide you with the, advanced first aid skills for working in high risk environments. It can also be used as a doorway to higher level pre-hospital care training.

Who should attend?

• People looking for work in pre-hospital care.

• Individuals working in high risk areas. (Security manager, Doorman, Close protection operative)

• People looking to boost employability.

• Individuals looking to progress to higher level training (including

registration as a Paramedic)

This course will provide you with the first aid skills and the confidence to administer emergancy treatment when necessary.

What are the entry requirements?

All Learners must be at least 17 years old and possess reasonable numeracy and literacy skills. Having existing basic first aid knowledge is highly recommended (e.g. previous attendance on a First Aid at Work, Emergency First Aid at Work or Paediatric First Aid course).

What will I learn?

· Here’s a breakdown of the FREC 3 course content:

· Roles and Responsibilities of Pre-Hospital Care Providers

· Patient assessment

· Catastrophic Bleeding

· Airway assessment and management

· Breathing assessment and management

·Circulatory assessment and management


Using various techniques and equipment, you will learn how to manage traumatic emergencies including:

• External bleeding

• Embedded object

• Internal bleeding

• Minor injuries

• Eye injuries

• Burns

• Head injuries

• Spinal injuries

• Pelvic injuries

• Fractures, sprains, strains and dislocations

• Crush injuries

• Closed chest injuries

• Open chest injuries

• Positional asphyxia

Medical conditions:

Using underpinning knowledge gained from the patient assessment lectures, we will help you gain an understanding in the recognition and management of common medical emergencies, Including:

• Anaphylaxis

• Asthma

• Hyperventilation

• Heart Attack

• Angina

• Stroke

• Diabetes

• Seizures

• Meningitis


As well as learning how to deal with common medical and traumatic emergencies, you will be taught how to manage emergencies caused by environmental factors. Such as:

• Hypothermia

• Hyperthermia

• Sun stroke

• Dehydration

• Exhaustion

• Food poisoning

How will I be assessed?

During the course you will undertake practical assessments and multiple-choice question papers.

What qualification will I receive?

Upon completion of this course, you will be awarded the Qualsafe/Lubas

Medical FREC Level 3 Certificate endorsed by the Royal College of Surgeons Edinburgh. While FREC Level 3 certification is valid for 3 years, we strongly recommend refreshing your CPR/AED skills annually.

How can I Progress?

FREC Level 3 qualification will allow you to enroll on FREC Level 4 and begin the pathway to FREC Level 6 which forms the final stage of a paramedic programme.

FREC Level 3 is taught over 35 hours spread over 5 days. You will also be required to complete 118 hours of self-directed learning. Following completion of the course.

How can I achieve my self-directed learning?

You will be expected to complete 118 hours of evidenced self-directed learning.

This can be made up of various elements including:

• Pre-course reading.

• Further reading on topics relevant to the course.

• Working/volunteering in a pre-hospital care role.

• We can provide an opportunity to work as part of our team at a sporting fixture, film set or event to help build up your hours.

We advise that you read the following books before attending the course:

• Ambulance Care Essentials.

• Generic Core Material.

These books will be available for you to borrow during your 5 days with us. 

What if I have further questions about the course?

Please don’t hesitate to contact one of our team:

Tel: 02921304101



Twitter: @Lubasmedical

The cost is £400 plus VAT. 

It will be held at the Lubas premisses, Cardiff, Wales. 

To book your place now:

Voucher Terms and Conditions

Posted by chris

Voucher Terms and Conditions


  •   By entering this competition, you confirm that you have read and fully understand the following terms and conditions.
  •  Competition details form part of these terms and conditions.
  • To enter the competition, Tweet using the Twitter hashtag provided by Lubas Medical.
  •  Competition winner will be picked at random from all entries via Twitter.
  •  Voucher valid until 25th November 2018.
  • £50 discount voucher may be used on any Lubas Medical Ltd course or product.
  • No refund or transfer will be offered if the winner cannot attend the chosen course after booking confirmation is complete. 
  •  Entry is open to residents of the UK except employees (and their families) of Lubas Medical Ltd, its printers and agents, the suppliers of the prizes and any other companies associated with the competitions.
  • The entrant(s) must be aged 18 or over. Proof of identity and age may be required.
  • Use of a false name or address will result in disqualification.
  • Entries that are incomplete, illegible, indecipherable, or inaudible (if made by phone) will not be valid and deemed void.
  • All entries must be made directly by the person entering the competition.
  • No responsibility can be accepted for entries lost, damaged or delayed in the post, or due to computer error in transit.
  • The prizes are as stated, are not transferable to another individual and no cash or other alternatives will be offered.
  • The winner(s) is (are) responsible for expenses and arrangements not specifically included in the prizes, including any necessary travel, accommodation, travel documents, passports and visas.
  • Prizes are subject to availability and the prize suppliers' terms and conditions.
  • The promoters reserve the right to amend or alter the terms of competitions at any time and reject entries from entrants not entering the spirit of the competition.
  • In the event of a prize being unavailable, the promoter reserves the right to offer an alternative prize of equal or greater value.


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